Due to increase in anthropogenic activities, global temperatures have shown a warming trend of 0.87°C over the period 1880-2015. Annual surface air temperatures over India also have shown increasing trends of similar magnitude during the period 1901-2015, making 2015 the warmest year in the period of instrumental data. Warmer temperature during the monsoon season (June-September, +0.72° C above average) and the post monsoon season (October-December, +1.1°C above average) mainly contributed to the warmer annual temperature. Climate change is now reality as evident from the significant increase in the CO2 concentration (403.99 ppm as on July 2016) which has caused most of the warming and has contributed the most to climate change.Yet again, the first half of 2016 has blown away temperature records, capped off by a record hot June, bumping up the odds that 2016 will be the hottest year on record globally. Two drought years in south central India created panic and for the first time in the history and special trains were put in place to provide drinking water. Climate Change and its extremes are increasingly one of the most serious national security threats, which will have significant impacts on agriculture, natural resources, ecosystem and biodiversity. At the same time, it is likely to trigger food insecurity, human migration, economic and social depression, environmental and political crisis, thereby affecting national development. Although, scientific reports have amply proved that future food production is highly vulnerable to climate change. But, an important source of uncertainty in anticipating the effects of climate change on agriculture is limited understanding of crop responses to extremely weather events. This uncertainty partly reflects the relative lack of observations of crop behaviour in farmers’ field under extreme heat or cold. Crop yield increases have been slowed and may go into decline as the region runs out of natural resources. Therefore, regular assessments to understand the science of earth’s changing climate, and its consequences; primarily driven by global warming, which in turn is highly extensive, complicated, and uncertain, is a scientific challenge of enormous importance to society. The summary of the recent IPCC’s fifth assessment report (IPCC, 2014) has again a stark warning on how climate change is threatening the South Asia, but report has also shown the way out to combat rampant climate change. India needs to develop a regional strategy for adapting to climate change and its variability in order to ensure food and ecological sustainability. Recognizing the importance of science issues that need to be addressed to deal with climate change, new approaches and policy interventions are desperately needed to enable and encourage smallholder farmers to adopt new technologies and practices under more uncertain and extreme climatic conditions for a resilient agricultural production system. No doubt, Indian farmers have evolved many coping mechanisms over the years, but these have been fallen short of an effective response strategy in dealing with recurrent and intense forms of extreme climatic events on the one hand and gradual changes in climate like rise in surface temperatures, changes in rainfall patterns, increases in evapo-transpiration rates and degrading soil moisture conditions on the other. Region wise climate change adaptation and mitigation options have been identified as important strategies to safeguard food production.
To address these issues, the proposed conference will focus on totality of the problem of climatic variability and change-its description, implications and explore approaches to maintain and increase crop productivity into the future.Based on the deliberations, future research strategies and recommendations will be developed to address the emerging matrix of the agricultural problems in holistic manner. Bihar Agricultural University has history of organizing six successful national and one international conference, which ended with sound recommendations for solving the problems of food and nutritional security. Climate change being one of the most complex issues facing us today, we expect overwhelming participation of delegates from across the country. It is hoped that their pro-active participation will play innovative and decisive role in shaping the future research aiming to look on climate change issues for farmers’ welfare and environmental security. We consider it our privilege to extend you a warm invitation for your active participation in the conference to accomplish its objectives.